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The Basics of Food Photography: Equipment and Setup

Updated: Apr 26

A close-up of delectable scones with clotted cream and strawberry jam. The golden-brown scones are freshly baked and flaky, cut in half to hold a dollop of thick cream and a generous spread of glistening red jam. To the side, a fresh strawberry with vibrant green leaves adds a splash of color to the scene. Crumbs on the surface and a knife with jam residue suggest a delightful snack time. The light background keeps the focus on the rich textures and appetizing colors of the traditional British treat.

Food photography requires not just an eye for detail but also the right equipment and techniques to bring culinary creations to life. This guide will cover the essentials—from camera selection to lighting—to help you capture stunning, high-quality images that showcase your skills.

Choosing the Right Camera: DSLR vs. Mirrorless vs. Smartphone

Over-the-shoulder view of a person reviewing a photo of a beautifully arranged meal on the display screen of a digital camera. The camera is held securely in the hands, showcasing the screen with the image in clear focus. The blurred background suggests a bright indoor setting, likely a kitchen or dining area where the photo shoot took place. The scenario captures the moment of a photographer reviewing their work during a food photography session.

DSLRs and Mirrorless Cameras:

In food photography, while the differences between DSLRs and mirrorless cameras may seem minimal, each has its merits. Mirrorless cameras are lighter and often feature tilting or rotating screens, which are invaluable for shooting at challenging angles. This can be particularly useful when space is at a premium. DSLRs might be bulkier, but they are now more affordable and compatible with a wide range of lenses, making them a cost-effective option. Both types of cameras should have manual controls to adjust settings like ISO, aperture, and shutter speed for precision shooting.


A top-down view capturing a person's hands using a smartphone to photograph a bowl of food. The phone screen displays the camera interface with the image of the meal, consisting of grilled chicken on a bed of salad and rice, clearly in focus. The dark, textured surface below the bowl adds contrast to the colorful and healthy dish, highlighting the food's details and emphasizing the act of food photography for social media or personal collection.

Smartphones are suitable for capturing informal content such as behind-the-scenes footage due to their convenience and increasingly high-quality cameras. However, for professional purposes where control over the image is paramount, dedicated cameras with adjustable settings are recommended.

Understanding Lenses for Food Photography

Prime Lenses:

An elegantly presented dessert on a pale blue plate, set on a white tablecloth. The dish features a smooth, round panna cotta adorned with fresh strawberry slices, a quenelle of vibrant yellow sorbet, and a decorative swoosh of deep red coulis. Edible flowers and a sprinkle of crumbled topping add a refined touch to the plating.

Prime lenses are essential for their large apertures, which allow more light and help achieve a shallow depth of field. This is crucial for focusing attention on the food and softening the background. Popular prime lenses include the 50mm, 85mm, and 105mm macro, each offering unique benefits for capturing stunning detail and depth.

Zoom Lenses:

A versatile 24-70mm zoom lens allows for quick framing adjustments without the need to move physically, ideal for shooting in confined spaces. This lens can adapt to various distances and compositions, making it a staple in food photography.

Macro Lenses:

A hand delicately pouring a rich, dark sauce over two succulent slices of medium-rare steak, elegantly plated on a cream-colored dish with gold trim. Accompanying the steak are golden roasted potatoes and a garnish of green leaves, adding freshness and color to the dish. The table setting includes a white tablecloth, fine cutlery, and a bottle of wine with a floral arrangement in the softly blurred background, enhancing the fine dining experience.

Macro lenses, such as a 105mm, are indispensable for close-up shots that capture textures and

intricate details of food, which are often crucial for making images come alive.

Tripods in Food Photography

Employing a tripod provides stability, essential for sharp images, especially in low light conditions. It also allows for consistency in shot composition, which is helpful when making slight adjustments to the food arrangement or styling. Tripods enable photographers to work hands-free, facilitating better interaction with styling elements and lighting.

Lighting Considerations

Natural Daylight:

Natural light is preferred for its ability to render colors and textures most authentically. It can be modified with reflectors to fill shadows or diffusers to soften intense direct light, providing a flattering illumination that enhances the food's appeal.

Artificial Lighting:

When natural light isn't available, artificial lights such as LEDs or flashes can fill in. Continuous LED lights offer the advantage of seeing the lighting effect in real-time, which is invaluable for making incremental adjustments. Flash lighting, while useful for freezing motion (like splashes), requires careful handling to ensure the food looks naturally lit.

Advanced Camera Settings and Techniques

Manual Focus:

Using manual focus allows for precise control over the focus point, critical in macro and close-up food photography where the depth of field is shallow and focusing must be exact.

Camera Settings:

  • ISO: Keep it as low as possible to reduce noise.

  • Aperture: Use a wider aperture (lower f-number) to blur the background and focus solely on the subject.

  • Shutter Speed: Adjust based on the lighting and whether or not you're capturing motion.

A diner's hands are shown in the process of elegantly slicing into a beautifully cooked piece of steak on a cream-colored plate with a gold rim. The steak is accompanied by roasted potatoes and a sprig of fresh herbs. A glass of red wine is in soft focus in the foreground, with floral arrangements and white table linens completing the sophisticated table setting. The attention to detail in the presentation suggests an upscale dining experience

Handling Mixed Lighting:

In environments with both natural and artificial light sources, adjusting the white balance is

crucial to avoid color casts. Using color gels on artificial lights to match the color temperature of natural light can help achieve a balanced and cohesive look.


With the right equipment and a solid understanding of lighting and camera settings, you can create compelling food photography that tells a story and showcases your culinary subjects in their best light. Whether you're using advanced DSLRs or mirrorless cameras with specific lenses, or enhancing your setup with appropriate lighting, each element plays a vital role in capturing the perfect shot. Equip yourself with these tools, and you'll enhance the quality and impact of your food photography significantly.

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